By Neal H. Atebara, MD

Discusses present functions of optical phenomena, together with the optical foundations of lasers, spectacles, IOLs and refractive surgical procedure. offers optics of the human eye; uncomplicated techniques of geometric optics; ophthalmic tools and phone lenses. Discusses imaginative and prescient rehabilitation from the epidemiology of imaginative and prescient impairment, class of visible functionality deficits, sufferer overview and occasional imaginative and prescient administration. final significant revision 2009 2010.

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Additional resources for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 3: Clinical Optics (Basic & Clinical Science Course)

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However, in most cases, images are not stigmatic. Instead, light from a single object poi nt is distributed over a small region of the image known as a blur circle or, more generally, a PSF. T he image formed by an optical system is the spatial summation of the PSF for every object point. The amount of detail in an image is related to the size of the blur circle or PSF for each object poi nt. The smaller the PSF, the better the resembla nce between object and image. Light Propagation An intensive investigation of light propagation was begun in the late J 500s.

O,,~~,p---__:---- Image Figure 2·5 Basic imag ing w ith a le ns. Th e lens collects light fro m an obj ect poi nt and redirects the light to a small spot in the image. (Illus tration deve loped by Kevin M. M iller. MD, and ren dered by C. H. ) Compared with the pinhole, the lens allows much more light from each object point to traverse the lens and ul timately contribute to the image. Generally, lenses produce better images than do pinholes. However, lenses do have some disadvantages. Place a lens at a fIxed distance from the candle and note that the image appears in only 1 location.

5, meaning that the image is inverted and half as large as the object. A magnification of +3 means the image is upright and 3 times larger than the object. ,-----,0 Geometric Optics. -' Figure 2-7 Obj ect height and image height may be measured fro m any pair of off-axis conjugate points. In this illustration, an object point, 0, on the wick, and its conjugate, f, are used to measure object and image height. (Illustration developed by Edmond H. Thall, MD. and Kevin M. Miller, MD. and rendered by C H.

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