By American Academy of Ophthalmology, Hermann D. Schubert MD
Presents an summary of the constitution and serve as of the retina and its courting to the pigment epithelium, choroid and vitreous. Describes the main vitreoretinal issues and acceptable diagnostic equipment and remedy principles.
In its final significant revision, part 12 was once re-organized into 3 elements. Separate chapters are actually dedicated to age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity, together with the most recent imaging innovations and choroidal aspect. chosen healing issues comprise laser remedy and vitreoretinal surgery.
Upon of completion of part 12, readers might be capable to:
Select acceptable equipment of exam and ancillary stories for the analysis of vitreoretinal disorders
Describe the foundations of clinical and surgical procedure of vitreoretinal disorders
Incorporate information from significant potential scientific trials within the administration of chosen vitreoretinal problems
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Extra resources for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 12: Retina and Vitreous
The affected left eye shows a mild reduction in b-wave amplitude but a striking delay in the latency of the flicker responses. The implicit time (arrows) of the responses from the left eye is longer than the interval between peaks, a sign that is strongly suggestive of diffuse damage to the retina . Figure 3-7 (Modified from Breton ME, Quinn GE, Keene 55, Dahmen JC, Brucker AJ. Electroretinogram parameters at presentation as predictors of rubeosis in central retinal vein occlusion patients, Ophthalmology.
The patient may be reassessed over hours or days as necessary until the edema, pain, and redness resolve. Although teratogenic effects have not been identified, many ophthalmologists avoid using FA in pregnant women in the first trimester unless absolutely necessary. Also of note, fluorescein is transmitted to breast milk in lactating women. Lower doses of fluorescein should be used in patients with renal insufficiency. Berkow TW, Flower RW, Orth DH, Kelley rs. Fluorescein and Indocyanine Green Angiography : Technique and Interpretation.
Time-domain OCT produces retinal thickness maps from 6 x 6-mm radial scans centered on the fovea, with interpolation between the scan lines, to produce a map of the macula. In contrast, Fourier-domain OCT can image the entire macula through its increased scanning speed and improved accuracy of thickness and volume measurements; it also improves registration, allowing for repeated imaging of the same area during follow-up visits. Dillworth B, Kagemann L, Wollstein G, et al. From the operator's perspective.