By American Academy of Ophthalmology, Ramana S. Moorthy MD

Starts with an summary of immune-mediated eye ailment, summarizing easy immunologic strategies, ocular immune responses and unique subject matters in ocular immunology. Discusses the scientific method of uveitis and stories noninfectious (autoimmune) and infectious sorts of uveitis, with an extended part on viral uveitis and new fabric on infectious and noninfectious scleritis.

Enhanced detection of infectious brokers by means of immunologic and genetic tools and biologic therapeutics are certain. additionally covers endophthalmitis, masquerade syndromes, issues of uveitis and ocular points of AIDS.

Upon of completion of part nine, readers may be capable to:

Identify normal and particular pathophysiologic procedures that impact the constitution and serve as of the uvea, lens, intraocular cavities, retina, and different tissues in acute and persistent intraocular inflammation
Differentiate and determine infectious and noninfectious uveitic entities
Choose acceptable exam ideas and correct ancillary experiences in keeping with even if an infectious or noninfectious reason is suspected

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Extra resources for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 9: Intraocular Inflammation and Uvetis

Sample text

Plasma-Derived Enzyme Systems Complement factors Complement is an important inflammatory mediator in the eye. Components and fragments of the complement cascade, which account for approximately 5% of plasma protein and comprise more than 30 different proteins, represent important endogenous amplifiers of innate and adaptive immunity, as well as mediators of inflammatory responses. Both adaptive and innate immune responses can initiate complement activation pathways, which generate products that contribute to the inflammatory process (Fig 1-3).

_ endothelium ~ ......... : Bacteria 3. Transmigration .. • •• - 4. Activation ~ I • • Chemotaxis Figure 1-1 Four steps of neutrophil migration and activation. 1, In response to innate stimuli, such as bacterial invasion of tissue, rolling neutrophils within the blood vessel bind loosely but reversibly to nonactivated endothelial cells by selectins. 2, Exposure to innate activating factors and bacterial products (dotted arrow) activates endothelial cells, which in turn express E- and P-selectins, ~-integrins, and immunoglobulin superfamily molecules to enhance and stabilize the interaction by a process called adhesion.

Role in atopic and vernal conjunctivitis Altered vascular permeability Neutrophil infiltration Recruits macrophages and T lymphocytes to eye Altered vascular permeability Mononuclear cell infiltration ~ Interferons Interferon gamma (IFN-y) IFN-a Growth factors Neuropeptides Transforming growth factor~ (TGF-~) Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) Substance P Vasoactive intestinal peptide Thl T lymphocytes NK cells Most leukocytes Many cells Leukocytes, T lymphocytes RPE and NPE of ciliary body Pericytes Fibroblasts Platelets Macrophages RPE Ocular nerves Mast cells Ocular nerves Most parenchymal cells Macrophages T lymphocytes RPE Glia Fibroblasts Fibroblasts Glia Many others Leukocytes Others Leukocytes Others Activates macrophages Neutrophil and macrophage infiltration Prevents viral infection of many cells Inhibits hemangioma, conjunctiva!

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