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Extra info for A Companion to the Eucharist in the Reformation
The Parisian master Robert of Courcon, 48 Macy, “Theology of the Eucharist,” in A Companion, pp. 394–396. 49 Jessalyn Bird, “The Construction of Orthodoxy and the (De)construction of Heretical Attacks on the Eucharist in Pastoralia from Peter the Chanter’s Circle in Paris,” in Texts and the Repression of Medieval Heresy, ed. C. Bruschi and P. Biller (York, 2003), p. 54. 32 gary macy writing c. 1208–1212/3, relates a story of Bernard of Clairvaux. The holy man, realizing that one of the novices had confessed insincerely, urged the man not to receive the host.
1240–1248, refined and developed Alexander’s theology. Richard rejected the substitution theory as defended by Roland of Cremona, since quantity as a mathematical entity could more naturally take on the role of a subject for the other accidents. The Franciscan master, William of Militona, who taught in Paris from 1245 to 1253, and Albert the Great, the famous Dominican, teaching on the Eucharist in Paris ca. 40 Thomas Aquinas, the Dominican theologian whose work would become the standard of orthodoxy for Roman Catholicism after the Reformation, therefore inherited an already constructed metaphysics of the Eucharist.
128–129. the medieval inheritance 19 and only the priest could make this presence possible. The Eucharist became a moment of divine presence and clerical power. Along with a theology that defined the power of the priest as centralized in his ability to make the risen Christ present on the altar came devotions and practices that celebrated that miraculous presence. In the early years of the thirteenth century, the custom was introduced of elevating the host after the consecration of the bread and of elevating the chalice after the consecration of the wine.