By Luciano Canepari
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Extra resources for A Handbook of Pronunciation
It would be complicated –and probably useless– to try to re-explain these matters in a general synthesis (probably too compressed and complex). ˛erefore we will merely suggest following the directions given here, emphasizing only the meaning of the di‡erent çparenthesesÇ used to enclose the symbols. Slashes –/ /– always denote phonemes, on a theoretical and abstract level; instead, brackets –( )– are used exclusively for phones (and taxophones) – ¤, the practical and concrete side of things, which nonetheless naturally comprise essential generalizations and normalizations, without which it would be necessary to 36 a handbook of pronunciation speak only of single, unrepeatable realizations of particular individuals.
In phonotonetic transcriptions, secondary stress is indicated by two dots placed close together (smaller than a single dot), variously oriented according to the tonetic necessities. Secondary stress on a medium level pitch is denoted with (&) in order not to create confusion with the hyphen we use to show syllable boundaries. ˛is use is consistent with marking primary stress with ('). çUnstressedÇ phono-syllables (or better, weakly-stressed – ¤, weaker than half-stressed syllables) with mid level pitch are not marked in any particular way.
Grey markers can also have white centers in cases where they refer to vocoids which can occur unstressed as well. At times, it can be necessary to improvise a di‡erence in the marker or in its shading in order to represent important realizations which depend upon the position in the word with respect to word boundaries, stress, syllable structure, less common use, or simple occasional variation. In this manner, it becomes possible to avoid the use of supplementary vocograms. ˛e purpose of these special markers will be explained clearly, whether in a text placed close to the vocogram, or in the main treatment.