By Sally Burgess

*The Teacher's ebook deals complete educating notes, heritage details, solutions and tapescripts *Includes additional photocopiable lecture room actions

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H. [1972]. The Computer from Pascal to von Newnan. Princeton University Press, 1972. J. [1983]. Computerschaak, schaakwereld en kunstmatige intelligentie. Academic Service, 's-Gravenhage, 1983. Hyman, A. [1982]. Charles Babbage. Pioneer of the Computer. Oxford University Press, 1982. Kahn, D. [1966]. The Codebreakers. MacMillan, New York, 1966. Lavington, S. [1980]. Early British Computers. , 1980. Metropolis, N. and J. Worlton [1972]. A trilogy on errors in the history of computing. Proc. -Japan Conf, Tokyo, 1972, AFIPS, Montvale, New Jersey, 1972, 683-691.

The (machine-oriented) symbolic languages use symbolic rather than the actual bitaddress of the memory location and also the operations to be performed are given symbolic (mnemonic) names. In a simple symbolic language there is a one-to-one correspondence with the actual hardware operations. Despite this improvement, which saves the programmer from knowledge of intimate details of the machine, programming remains a very tedious task. Therefore libraries of short programs for standard operations and frequently occurring processes (numerical computations) were developed.

This further reduces the necessity of knowledge of the machine language and makes it possible that users which are only familiar with their own problems can use the computer. Especially the need of having a way to use a notation closer to the customary way of writing mathematical formulae started the departure from symbolic languages to higher-level languages. M. computer of Manchester University (Great Britain). With their notation it was possible to describe the numerical calculations (addition, subtraction, and multiplication) and the organization of the calculations into an automatic process.

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