By Stephen H. Hall
A synergistic method of sign integrity for high-speed electronic layout
This booklet is designed to supply modern readers with an knowing of the rising high-speed sign integrity concerns which are growing roadblocks in electronic layout. Written by way of the key specialists at the topic, it leverages thoughts and methods from non-related fields similar to utilized physics and microwave engineering and applies them to high-speed electronic design—creating the optimum mix among conception and sensible functions.
Following an creation to the significance of sign integrity, bankruptcy insurance comprises:
- Electromagnetic basics for sign integrity
Transmission line basics
Non-ideal conductor types, together with floor roughness and frequency-dependent inductance
Frequency-dependent houses of dielectrics
Mathematical standards of actual channels
S-parameters for electronic engineers
Non-ideal go back paths and through resonance
I/O circuits and types
Modeling and budgeting of timing jitter and noise
approach research utilizing reaction floor modeling
each one bankruptcy comprises many figures and various examples to assist readers relate the innovations to daily layout and concludes with difficulties for readers to check their figuring out of the fabric. complex sign Integrity for High-Speed electronic Designs is appropriate as a textbook for graduate-level classes on sign integrity, for courses taught in for pro engineers, and as a reference for the high-speed electronic dressmaker.
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Additional resources for Advanced signal integrity for high-speed digital designs
However, for wave propagation in other media, such as the dielectric of a printed circuit board (PCB), the speed of light and the intrinsic impedance are calculated using the relative permittivity εr and relative permeability µr , which simply describe the properties of the material relative to free-space values. Note that both µr and εr are unitless values that are real numbers for loss-free media but become complex for lossy media, as described in Chapters 5 and 6. The speed of light (referred to as the phase velocity for media other than free space) and the intrinsic impedance in a medium is calculated as νp = √ η ≡ 1 c =√ µ r µ 0 εr ε0 µ r εr µr µ0 = εr ε0 µ E = ε H m/s ohms (2-52) (2-53) Note that for free space, µr and εr are both defined to be unity.
In fact, communication between components in a high-speed digital design necessitates the intentional propagation of electromagnetic waves guided by transmission lines and the prevention of energy propagation across unintentional pathways (such as crosstalk) or in unwanted signal propagation modes. Without a detailed study of wave propagation, the study of signal integrity would become impossible. 1 Wave Equation In subsequent chapters it will become necessary to analyze electromagnetic wave propagation only in terms of magnetic or electric fields because they are related directly to the voltage and current propagating on transmission lines, through vias, or across planes.
Where J = 0 for a source-free medium and D = εE (for now, we assume that P = 0): ∂Hy ∂Ex ∂Hx ay − ax = 0 + ax ε ∂z ∂z ∂t Grouping into vector components yields ∂Hy ∂Ex = ax ε ∂z ∂t ∂Hx ay =0 ∂z −ax The nonzero components of the equations above can be grouped to see the contributions in both the x- and y-directions. ay ∂Hy ∂Ex = −µ ∂z ∂t (2-29) ∂Hy ∂Ex =− ∂t ∂z (2-30) ax ε Equations (2-29) and (2-30) symbolize an important concept used throughout signal integrity analysis, which is that the electric and magnetic fields are orthogonal and there are no components in the z-direction.