By Hester R.E., Harrison R.M. (eds.)

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Troake, L. E. Troake and D. E. Walling, Tech. , MAFF, 1973, 32, 340. Eutrophication of Natural Waters and Toxic Algal Blooms however, is the fact that almost all of the increase arrived in solution, meaning that the readily available nutrient fraction increased over the same period by almost 14-fold. Against the background of palaeolimnological studies carried out on this lake, it was also possible to judge that there had been a slow enrichment of the lake following the Iron Age and later forest clearance, pastoral farming, human settlement and quarrying.

Controlled Waters are waters subject to the Water Resources Act (1991) and include all rivers, lakes, groundwaters, estuaries, and coastal waters. Pesticides are potentially ‘poisonous, noxious or polluting’ substances, and therefore the NRA is responsible for controlling and preventing pesticide pollution of water. Furthermore, the NRA is responsible for ensuring water quality meets standards set in a number of EC Directives, some of which specify values for pesticides. 3 Pesticides and the Aquatic Environment Currently there are about 450 pesticide active ingredients approved for use by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) and the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) in the UK, the majority of which are used in agriculture.

44 Impact of Agricultural Pesticides on Water Quality Table 1 The 20 most used pesticides by weight (tonnes) in Great Britain in 1992 and 1994 Pesticide 1992 1994 Sulfuric acid Isoproturon Chlormequat Mancozeb Sulfur Chlorothalonil Mecoprop Glyphosate Mecoprop P Fenpropimorph Carbendazim Maneb Fenpropidin MCPA Metamitron Dimethoate Trifluralin Metaldehyde Tri-allate Carboxin 9994 2809 2413 1253 679 910 447 261 539 635 289 554 277 220 234 113 327 78 260 21 12 807 2339 2302 1054 1022 760 715 567 510 295 287 278 233 232 229 212 206 185 179 173 The first known incidence of pollution from approved herbicides was identified in 1972 in Essex, where tomato plants grown by commercial producers became malformed.

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