By Stephen Aron

Within the middle of North the US, the Missouri, Ohio, and Mississippi rivers come jointly, uniting waters from west, north, and east on a trip to the south. this can be the sector that Stephen Aron calls the yankee Confluence. Aron's leading edge e-book examines the historical past of that zone -- a house to the Osage, a colony exploited through the French, a brand new frontier explored by means of Lewis and Clark -- and focuses at the region's transition from a spot of overlapping borderlands to 1 of oppositional border states. American Confluence is a full of life account that may pride either the beginner historian.

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Additional info for American Confluence: The Missouri Frontier from Borderland to Border State (History of the Trans-Appalachian Frontier)

Sample text

Speculating on the Missouri’s source, its considerable flow, and the way its waters muddied the Mississippi, more than one traveler suggested that perhaps the Mississippi was, in fact, a tributary of the Missouri. ” Even more consideration fell on the fourteen “very populous tribes” who lived along the river. Of particular interest were their relations with one another and with the Spanish to the south and west. By 1700, the French had learned that the Pawnees and the Wichitas, whose villages were situated to the west of the Missouri’s northward turn, had horses with 22 AMERICAN CONFLUENCE Spanish brands.

That dominance, in turn, gave the Osages more access to bison, which emerged as an increasingly significant element of Osage life. The buffalo remained secondary to deerskins as a trade commodity. More important for exchange purposes were the horses and mules that Osages took from plains people, and the people themselves, who were sold as slaves to the French. This represented something of a change, for previously the Osages ei- 25 Openings Figure 2. Exotic items, such as this magnifying glass found at a Miami Indian site in present-day Illinois, were prominent in eighteenth-century trade between Europeans and Indians in the confluence region.

These newcomers, however, came from the north, not the south, and they represented France, not Spain. In many respects, the colonial designs of Spain and France started out alike and, through the seventeenth century, continued to resemble one another in certain respects. The Catholic monarchs who ruled both countries hoped their American empires would yield riches, preferably in the form of gold and silver. In this scheme, colonies enriched monarchies, but they were not meant to attract large numbers of colonists from the mother countries.

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