By André Moliton

This e-book provides sensible and suitable technological information regarding electromagnetic homes of fabrics and their functions. it truly is aimed toward senior undergraduate and graduate scholars in fabrics technological know-how and is the manufactured from a long time of training easy and utilized electromagnetism. themes variety from the spectroscopy and characterization of dielectrics, to non-linear results, to ion-beam functions in fabrics.

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2) the values of PAB and PBA recalled above, and by a U  qE 2 ) , we obtain: multiplying the two parts of Eq. (2) by exp( kT NA qE a 2) N A exp( kT qE (1c) N  NB qE N B exp( a 2). kT (2c) a 2 , we then need to resolve kT By making u NA N  NB N A exp(u) (3) and N B exp(u) . (4) By carrying Eq. (3) into Eq. (4), as in: (N  N B ) exp(u) N B exp( u) , then the multiplication of the 2 parts by exp(-u) gives (N  N B ) N B exp(2u) , and hence N B >1  exp(2u) @ N. 24 Applied electromagnetism and materials N Finally, N B 1  exp(2u) When NA is such that N A NA N N N 1  exp(2u) 1  exp( qEa kT .

Y Inversions within the complex plane are such that if the representation of one of these magnitudes is a circle, then its inverse is a straight line, and visa versa. 2. 1. 1. (a) Scheme of a parallel circuit and (b) plots of H’ =(logZ) and H’’ = f(logZ). 1a, we have: Chapter 2. Characterization of dielectrics 41 1 1 Zp Rp 1  , so that with ZCp = ZC p 1 1 Zp Rp 1 jZCp ,  jZ C p . (3) Identification with Eq. (3) leads to: 1 ZHr’’C0 + jZHr’C0 Rp  jZCp , so that identification of real and imaginary parts gives Hr’ = Hr’’ = Cp C0 (4) 1 ZC0 R p .

1. Example using a parallel circuit In this particular case, from Eq. (3) it is possible to write: Re(Z P ) RP (1  Z2 R P2 C P2 ) , (18) . (19) and Im(Z P ) ZR P2 C P (1  Z2 R P2 C P2 ) With the help of these equations, we can obtain a relationship between Re (ZP) and Im (ZP) by writing: 2 2 ª RP º ) »  ª Im(Zp ) ¼º « Re(Z P )  ( ¬ 2 ¼ ¬ R P2 4 . R This equation corresponds to the equation for a circle centered on real axes ( P , 0) 2 RP . 6b with respect to the angular frequency (Ȧ) which varies from 0 to + ’, Chapter 2.

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