By Wolfgang Braun
The publication describes RHEED (reflection high-energy electron diffraction) used as a device for crystal development. New tools utilizing RHEED to signify surfaces and interfaces in the course of crystal development through MBE (molecular beam epitaxy) are provided. certain emphasis is wear RHEED depth oscillations, segregation phenomena, electron energy-loss spectroscopy and RHEED with rotating substrates.
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Extra info for Applied RHEED: Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction During Crystal Growth
0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Coverage (layers) Fig. 8a,b. Simulation of surface roughness during layer-by-layer growth using the birth-death model9 The amplitude of the oscillations is larger for a large diffusion parameter D given in Figs. 8a and b for small and large diffusion, respectively. As expected, the amplitude of the oscillations is smaller in Fig. 8a, for a spread of the growth front over many monolayers, than in Fig. 8b, which corresponds to almost perfect layer-by-layer growth.
Whereas beats with complete extinction at the nodes are observed on the central streak, practically no beating is seen on the first-order streak. This behavior cannot be explained by macroscopic flux variations by predeposited Sn, where the Sn was incorporated between experiments by overgrowth at low temperatures , and an explanation has been presented which relies on the formation of mesoscopic surface undulations that lead to locally different growth rates . A similar case is discussed in Sect.
9. A simple model that qualitatively describes the basic mechanism can be more useful in designing an experiment, as well as in interpreting trends or isolated features of data, than an accurate theory that is too elaborate for a quick estimate. 1 Birth-Death Models Some of the processes involved in layer-by-layer growth can be described by a basic rate equation introduced by Cohen et al. . This so-called birth-death model describes the growth process in terms of the coverages 0 < On _~ 1 of the n molecular layers involved in the growth process.