By Benjamin F. Boyd

This atlas is an all-encompassing cutting-edge presentation of the several ideas in refractive surgical procedure and the methods of selection for every refractive blunders. all of the significant advancements are broadly illustrated, sincerely defined, and target.

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26. For computerized corneal topography of keratoconus and sub-clinical keratoconus, which are essential to detect in the preoperative evaluation, see Fig. 40. keratoscope Placido disk mires (Figs. 32 and 33). This is done using simple guidelines. Mires larger in diameter, broader in width or more widely separated than normal are an indication of low power of the underlying cornea. The steeper portion of the cornea reflects the rings in a pattern in which they appear closer together (R - Fig. 32).

Index 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 29: Limited Assessment with the Standard Keratometer The standard keratometer takes only two small, 50 micron samples 3 to 4 mm apart to determine the central curvature and dioptric power of the cornea. It completely misses aspheric or irregular surfaces anywhere else on the cornea. Keratoscopy The standard clinical and surgical keratometer that we had used for many years to measure the power of the cornea, particularly for contact lens fitting, is not reliable for refractive surgery.

00 diopters. D) Anisometropia: in children under 10 years of age who have failed to maintain their visual acuity under therapy with contact lenses or glasses. This procedure must be done under general anesthesia. , has pointed out that the limitation of LASIK beyond -10D is because with scanning lasers it is important not to use optical zones smaller in diameter than the size of the pupil in the dark. In both myopia and hyperopia we need to work with optical zones larger than the size of the pupil at night.

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