By Russell A. Barkley PhD ABPP ABCN
This guide offers broad wisdom at the nature, analysis, review, and remedy of ADHD. supplied are authoritative instructions for figuring out and handling the demanding situations ADHD poses to young children, young people, and adults in quite a number settings. All chapters finish with common Key scientific Points.Note: Practitioners wishing to enforce the evaluation and remedy thoughts within the guide are steered to buy the significant other Workbook, which incorporates an entire set of kinds, questionnaires, and handouts, in a large-size structure with permission to photocopy. (20080101)
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Additional resources for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Third Edition: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment
Gordon (1983) developed, normed, and commercially marketed a small, portable, computerized device that administered two tests believed to be sensitive to the deficits in ADHD. One was a CPT measuring vigilance and impulsivity, and the other was a direct reinforcement of low rates (DRL) test assessing impulse control. This device became the first commercially available objective means of assessment for children with ADHD. Although the DRL test showed some promise in early research (Gordon, 1979), it was subsequently shown to be insensitive to stimulant medication effects (Barkley, Fischer, Newby, & Breen, 1988) and was eventually deemphasized as useful in the diagnosis in ADHD.
1984, 1989). Other studies (Hunt, Cohen, Anderson, & Minderaa, 1988; Rapoport & Zametkin, 1988; Shaywitz, Shaywitz, Cohen, & Young, 1983; Shekim, Glaser, Horwitz, Javaid, & Dylund, 1988; Zametkin & Rapoport, 1986) on brain neurotransmitters provided further evidence that deficiencies in dopamine, norepinephrine, or both may be involved in explaining these patterns of brain underactivity—patterns arising in precisely those brain areas in which dopamine and norepinephrine are most involved. Drawing these lines of evidence together even further was the fact that these brain areas are critically involved in response inhibition, motivational learning, and response to reinforcement.
This model predicted that those with ADHD should prove less sensitive to such signals, particularly in passive avoidance paradigms (Quay, 1988a). The theory also specifies predictions that can be used to test and even falsify the model as it applies to ADHD. For instance, Quay (1988a, 1988b) predicted that there should be greater resistance to extinction 26 I. THE NATURE OF ADHD following periods of continuous reinforcement in those with ADHD, but less resistance when training conditions involve partial reward.