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The defense is then extended to cover all evils by claiming that all evils in the world directly or indirectly stem from wrong choices. Furthermore, one should also argue that the evils resulting from wrong choices are not unjustly distributed and that the sum of 5 Flew, Presumption, p. 81. 6 Ibid. Flew here cites St. Thomas, Summa Theologiae I, q. 25, a. 4. 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid. Augustine, Flew, and the Free Will Defense 41 goods outweighs the sum of evils. The basic question regarding free will is not: free will or determinism, but free will and determinism or free will and indeterminism.

But there cannot fail to be what you think of with true reason. For you cannot think of something better in creation that has escaped the artisan of creation. Hence, Augustine says to God in his Confessions that things of this world cry out to us that they have been made. “The voice by which they speak is their presence to our senses. And so, you, Lord, who are beautiful made them, for they are beautiful; you who are good made them, for they are good; you who are made them, for they are,” and yet compared to God they are not, nor are they good, nor are they 57 beautiful.

21 Ibid. I, 12, 26. 22 Ibid. I, 12, 25 and 26. 23 Ibid. I, 12, 26. Augustine’s claim about the excellence of a good will recalls Kant’s similar claim. See Immanuel Kant, Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals, 11. 24 De libero arbitrio I, 13, 20. The happiness of which Augustine speaks is something that is attained in this life. Indeed, in the earlier De ordine II, 9, 26, he spoke of an intellectual contemplation of God that is attainable by 44 Augustine Of Hippo: Philosopher, Exegete & Theologian One the question “whether free will ...

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