By Fabio De Castro, K. Koonings, M. Wiesebron
This edited assortment translates and assesses the transformation of Brazil lower than the employees' occasion. It addresses the level of the adjustments the employees' social gathering has led to and examines how profitable those were, in addition to how continuity and social switch in Brazil have affected key domain names of financial system, society, and politics.
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Additional resources for Brazil Under the Workers’ Party: Continuity and Change from Lula to Dilma
Substantively, the length of these lines represents perceptual heterogeneity within the governing coalition led by the PT – the longer the line, the more dissensus within the pro-Lula camp. Although on some of the survey items we see agreement among the groups in their comparisons of the FHC and Lula governments, there are also some fascinating differences of opinion. For example, there are a number of survey items on which the pro-Lula centre-right clearly distances itself from the pro-government left.
Tensions such as these led the MST and other progressive CSOs to withdraw into a position of apoio crítico (critical support), which consisted of voicing opposition to PT policies while simultaneously defending the Lula government against any potential comeback by the PSDB. These CSOs continue to construct their identities in the context of resistance to neoliberalism, and simply put, they defend the PT because they have ‘nowhere else to go’ in the contemporary Brazilian party system. The work of Kathryn Hochstetler (2008) has shown that apoio crítico has become the status quo since the mid-2000s, and that it is unlikely the PT will recover its previously symbiotic relationship with progressive CSOs as long as it remains in federal government.
Under Lula, people who were committed to more participatory forms of government creatively combined different practices and routines, although each ministry did so in its own distinct way. To deal with the idea that state-society interactions can grow out of both historical tradition and experimentalism, we draw on and adapt significantly Charles Tilly’s concept of ‘repertoire of contention’. Along with other social movement scholars, Tilly argued that when movements decide how to organize a collective action, they choose among a finite portfolio of techniques and practices with which they have experience and which have social and political legitimacy.