By Ernest Sosa
This quantity provides a variety of the main influential fresh discussions of the the most important metaphysical query: what's it for one occasion to reason one other? the topic of causation bears on many subject matters, resembling time, rationalization, psychological states, the legislation of nature, and the philosophy of technological know-how. participants contain J.L Mackie, Michael Scriven, Jaegwon Kim, G.E.M. Anscombe, G.H. von Wright, C.J. Ducasse, Wesley C. Salmon, David Lewis, Paul Horwich, Jonathan Bennett, Ernest Sosa, and Michael Tooley.
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Extra info for Causation (Oxford Readings in Philosophy)
But we can certainly say that his injury caused the loss of the match, and that it was a necessary condition post factum. This account may be summed up, briefly and approximately, by saying that the statement 'A caused P' often claims that A was necessary and sufficient for P in the circumstances. This description applies in the standard cases, but we have already noted that a cause is non-redundant rather than necessary even in the circumstances, and we shall see that there are special cases in which it may be neither necessary nor non-redundant.
Moreover, given that the world does not appear to be a deterministic one, it would seem that it cannot be guaranteed by the combination of laws of nature plus boundary conditions. Accordingly, it would seem, first, that, for any spatio-temporal region, however limited, there must be some nonzero probability of its containing a conjunctive fork whose direction is opposite to that of most conjunctive forks, and secondly, that it is therefore extremely improbable that no such oppositely directed conjunctive forks are to be found anywhere in space-time.
What I call the causal field is the logical sum of the case (or cases) in which the effect is being said to be caused with what Scriven calls the contrast class. CAUSES AND CONDITIONS 41 house because of, or partly because of, a certain feature, we are implying that it would still have been this house, the house in relation to which we are seeking the cause of this happening, even if it had not had this particular feature. I now propose to modify the account given above of the claims often made by singular causal statements.