By Patricia Seed

This paintings of comparative background, first released in 1996, explores the array of ceremonies that Europeans played to mark their taking ownership of the hot global. Frenchmen reproduced the grandeur of royal processions anywhere attainable, continuously finishing in discussion with the indigenous peoples. Spaniards made solemn speeches sooner than launching army assaults. Dutchmen drew intensely certain maps, scrutinizing harbours and coastlines as they disembarked. The Portuguese superimposed the grid of latitudes upon lands they have been later to take by means of the sword. The English flippantly laid out fences and hedges within the demeanour in their local shires. via such actions every one energy thought of itself to be growing imperial authority over the Americas; but each one didn't recognize a similar value within the ceremonies of alternative countries. This publication develops the cultural contexts of those ceremonies, and tackles the consequences of this old legacy for modern geographical regions within the post-colonial period.

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Patiently, for hours on end, they waited in line so that everyone might have a chance to celebrate an upstairs mass in the Madonna's honor. At its conclusion, the devout streamed down the aisle to the altar, bearing hard-earned gifts of clothing, food, jewelry, and money. "Every offer represents a sorrowful tale of great sufferings, of unexpected joys and of eternal gratitude," noted one church publication. "Each heart is enclosed in that offer. " Clutching a scapular, a small piece of cloth that bore the Madonna's image—a gift from their priests— celebrants then exited the church, hopeful that she had given them her blessing and with it sanctioned their lives in the New World.

For the German immigrants of the 19th century as well as those that followed them in the 20th—the Italians, Cubans, and Haitians—Catholicism and ethnic identity went hand in hand. Persisting instead of disappearing, as so many predicted it would, ethnicity challenged the Catholic Church in America to make room for everyone. At least once a year, thousands of Italian Americans were able to put away their "vaunted American ways" and be "Italian through and through," by participating in a religious street festival or feste, a tradition imported from the Old World to the New, explained Anna C.

Religion was so intertwined with family life that it was hard to tell where one began and the other left off. For one thing, the decor of the home was just like that found at church: The scent and sight of dozens of illuminated candles filled the dining room; delicately colored holy cards, imported at first, then made in America, hung on the walls while painted wood shrines to the Madonna and other saints adorned the bedroom and even the backyard. " Domestic rituals, especially those having to do with food, were also sanctified.

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