By Janet Hamilton, Bernard Hamilton, Yuri Stoyanov

Christian dualism originated within the reign of Constans II (641-68). It was once a well-liked faith, which shared with orthodoxy an recognition of scriptual authority and apostolic culture and held a sacramental doctrine of salvation, yet understood these kind of in a extensively diversified approach to the Orthodox Church. one of many alterations used to be the robust half demonology performed within the trust process. this article strains, via unique assets, the origins of dualist Christianity in the course of the Byzantine Empire, concentrating on the Paulician circulate in Armenia and Bogomilism in Bulgaria. It offers not just the theological texts, yet places the events into their social and political context.

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Extra info for Christian Dualist Heresies in the Byzantine World C.650-C.1450: Selected Sources (Manchester Medieval Sources Series)

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The monastic way of life was believed by the Churches of East and West in the central Middle Ages to approximate most closely to the life of Christian perfection, and the Bogomils were criticized not because the way in which they lived was in itself wrong, but because their motives for embracing asceticism were different from those recognized by the Orthodox tradition. Monastic ascesis involved giving up things which were of their nature God-given, in order the better to respond to Christ’s invitation to self-denial,101 whereas the Bogomils gave these things up because they believed them to be inherently evil and therefore incompatible with the practice of the Christian life.

Most members of the Orthodox establishment do not seem to have considered that the Bogomils were particularly dangerous. Theophylact of Ochrida, Archbishop of Bulgaria (c. 1090–c. 1118), for example, makes few clear 113 Angold, The Byzantine empire, pp. 12–58. 114 Hussey, The Orthodox Church, pp. 127–40. 115 Cosmas’ condemnation of him may have been incorporated in a provincial recension of the Synodikon of Orthodoxy dating from Alexius I’s reign [16 (a)]. P 36 CDHIN 36 11/28/97, 10:39 AM HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION references to them in his writings,116 even though the cradle of Bogomilism lay in his own province.

P 43 CDHIN 43 11/28/97, 10:39 AM CHRISTIAN DUALIST HERESIES the Cathar bishops of Northern and Southern France and Lombardy. He reconsoled all the Cathar perfect present, reconsecrated the bishops, and consecrated three additional bishops for the southern French communities. He recommended that the churches should define their diocesan boundaries in the interests of future harmony, claiming that that was the practice of the churches of the East [37(a)]. 139 Zigabenus and earlier Byzantine sources knew nothing of this schism, which must have developed between c.

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