By Arthur L. Rosenbaum MD, Alvina Pauline Santiago MD
Introducing a textual content that gives counsel for the clinician within the review and administration of all kinds of strabismus in either adults and kids. targeting medical administration, this article places into point of view smooth diagnostic exams, and discusses the diversity of remedies to be had as soon as a case of strabismus has been evaluated. Covers either common and cutting edge surgical strategies by using colour intraoperative photos. additionally discusses rules of surgical administration and the several surgeries ordinary within the administration of those complicated difficulties.
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Extra info for Clinical Strabismus Management: Principles and Surgical Techniques
28. Jampolsky A: The prism test for strabismus screening. J Pediatr Oph thalmol 1964:1:30. 29. Kushner B J: Ocular causes of abnormal head postures. Ophthalmology 1979:86:2115. 30. Kushner B J: Errors in the three-step test in the diagnosis of vertical strabismus. Ophthalmology 1989:96:127. 31. Kushner B J: Pseudo inferior oblique overaction associated w ith Y and V patterns. Ophthalmology 1991:98:15(H). 32. Kushner B J: Restriction of elevation in abduction after inferior oblique anteriori/ation.
Kushner B J: Errors in the three-step test in the diagnosis of vertical strabismus. Ophthalmology 1989:96:127. 31. Kushner B J: Pseudo inferior oblique overaction associated w ith Y and V patterns. Ophthalmology 1991:98:15(H). 32. Kushner B J: Restriction of elevation in abduction after inferior oblique anteriori/ation. J Am Assoc Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1997:1:55. 33. Kushner B J, Lucchese N J. Morton GV: Grating visual acuity with Teller cards compared with Snellen visual acuity in literate patients.
The vertical rectus muscles have their greatest (pure) vertical action when the eye is abducted 23 degrees from the midline, whereas the oblique muscles have their greatest vertical action when the eye is adducted 51 degrees from the midline. Some strabismologists prefer evaluation in nine gaze fields, as shown in Figure 1-16. Version testing also helps to confirm or alert one to the presence of incomitant strabismus. For example, if an A pattern is apparent on cover testing, versions may reveal bilateral SO overaction.