By Francesco Bandello, Marco Attilio Zarbin, Rosangela Lattanzio, Ilaria Zucchiatti

With the appearance of powerful remedies for diabetic retinopathy (DR), a brand new period within the administration of DR has been unfolded. Amid the deluge of authorized remedies and promising new options, despite the fact that, clinicians may perhaps locate it tricky to settle on the right perform in every one person case. the aim of this easy-to-use and richly illustrated guide is to aid ophthalmologists in making judgements within the complete administration of DR in line with the simplest to be had facts. sensible and entire strategies are supplied to lead clinicians in prognosis, decision-making, and therapy. The handbook contains useful algorithms and case histories in relation to all phases of DR that essentially clarify the development of the sickness and may aid the clinician to settle on the easiest healing procedure. it will likely be a fantastic source for ophthalmologists aiming to supply optimum medical administration for this sight-threatening disease.

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Additional info for Clinical Strategies in the Management of Diabetic Retinopathy: A step-by-step Guide for Ophthalmologists

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Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:349–357 92. Chan PS, Kanwar M, Kowluru RA (2010) Resistance of retinal inflammatory mediators to suppress after reinstitution of good glycemic control: novel mechanism for metabolic memory. 1 Clinical Overview ........................................................................................................... 1 Clinical Findings ................................................................................................. 2 Classification of NPDR .......................................................................................

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Microaneurysms are the typical earlier signs of DR. They consist in outward ballooning of the capillary wall and dilatation of the terminal arterioles or small venules in areas of selective loss of intramural pericyte [1]. Their size could range from 25 to 100 μm in diameter and their location is predominately at the posterior pole, more often temporally to the macula [2] (Fig. 1). Two types of microaneurysms have been described, according to the extension of the vessel wall dilatation: fusiform (only one side of the vessel wall) and saccular (both sides) microaneurysms.

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